Vanadium (V)

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Vanadium 73V50.942

Vanadium was discovered in 1801 by A.M. del Rio at Mexico City, Mexico. Rediscovered in 1831 by N.G. Selfström at Falun, Sweden.

[Named after Vanadis, a Scandianavian goddess]

French: vanadium
German: Vanadium
Italian: vanadio
Spanish: vanadio

Description: Vanadium is a shiny, silvery metal, which is soft when pure. It resists corrosion due to a protective film of oxide on the surface. Vanadium is attacked by concentrated acids, but not alkalis, not even when these are molten. The metal is used mainly as alloys, especially in steels.



Vanadium single crystal properties

State: single crystal
Crystal structure: bcc
Production method: Floating zone
Standard size: diameter 12mm
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (100), (110) and (111)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03µm
Purity: 99.99%
Typical analysis (ppm): C 3
H < 1
O 9
N < 5
Cu 1.60
Fe 1.80
Ni < 1
Pb 0.30
Si 0.30

Ga, Hf and Ta are below the detection limit

Materials properties

Density: 6.1 g/cm3
Melting point: 1886.85 °C / 2160 °K
Boiling point: 3376.85 °C / 3650 °K
Molar volume: 8.34 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 30.7 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 8.3 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 24.8x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: +6.28 x 10-8(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 127.6 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 46.7 GPa
Bulk modulus: 158 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.365
Radii: V5+ 59; V4+ 61; V3+ 65; V2+ 72; atomic 132
Electronegativity: 1.63 (Pauling); 1.45 (Allred); 3.6 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 3.30 (Slater); 4.98 (Clementi); 6.65 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 11
Issotope mass range: 44 -> 55
Crystal structure, (cell dimentions / pm), space group bcc
X-ray diffraction: mass absorption coefficients: CuKα 233 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKα 27.5 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: -0.0382 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 5.08 sa / barns


Biological data

Biological role: Essential to some species including humans; it also acts to stimulate metalbolism.
Toxic intake: toxicity varies
Lethal intake: LD50 (V2O5, oral, rat) = 10 mg kg-1
Hazards: Vanadium and its compunds irritate the eyes and lungs; the fumes of volatile compounds are highly toxic. Some vanadium compounds have experimental mutagenic effects.
Level in humans  
Blood: <0.0002 mg dm-3
Bone: 0.0035 p.p.m.
Liver: 0.006 p.p.m.
Muscle: 0.02 p.p.m.
Daily dietary intake: 0.04 mg
Total mass of element in average [70 kg] person: 0.11 mg


Geological data

MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Carnotite K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O 4.95 n.a. mon., dull/earthy/pearly yellow
Descloizite PbZn(VO4)(OH) 6.2 3 - 3.5 orth., greasy brown/red
Patrónite VS4 2.81 2 mon., grey-black
Vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl 6.86 2.7 - 3 hex., sub-res./sub-adam. orange red


Chief ore: descloizite, patronite, vanadite, carnotite.
World production: 7000 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: not mined as such, but generally obtained as a by-product of other ores and from Venezuelan oils.
Reserves: n.a.
Specimen: available as foil, granules, powder, rod or turnings. CARE !


Sun: 1.05 x 104 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: 160 p.p.m.
Residence time:  
Classification: recycled
Oxidation state: V

Source: Emsley, J. (1998) The Elements (3rd Edition)

Overview of elements with access to our shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

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