Vanadium (V)

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1801 von A.M. del Rio in Mexico City, Mexiko entdeckt. 1831 von N.G. Selfström in Falun, Schweden wiederentdeckt.

[Nach Vanadis, einer nordischen Göttin, benannt]

French: vanadium
English: vanadium
Italian: vanadio
Spanish: vanadio

Beschreibung: Glänzendes, silberfarbiges Metall; reines Metall ist weich. Auf Grund der Passivität durch eine Oxidhaut ist es widerstandsfähig gegen Korrosion. Von konzentrierten Säuren wird es angegriffen, aber nicht von geschmolzenen Alkalien. Hauptsächlich für Legierungen und Stahl verwendet.

Vanadium single crystal properties

State: single crystal
Crystal structure: bcc
Production method: Floating zone
Standard size: diameter 12mm
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (100), (110) and (111)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03µm
Purity: 99.99%
Typical analysis (ppm): C 3
H < 1
O 9
N < 5
Cu 1.60
Fe 1.80
Ni < 1
Pb 0.30
Si 0.30

Ga, Hf and Ta are below the detection limit

Materials properties

Density: 6.1 g/cm3
Melting point: 1886.85 °C / 2160 °K
Boiling point: 3376.85 °C / 3650 °K
Molar volume: 8.34 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 30.7 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 8.3 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 24.8x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: +6.28 x 10-8(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 127.6 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 46.7 GPa
Bulk modulus: 158 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.365 GPa
Radii: V5+ 59; V4+ 61; V3+ 65; V2+ 72; atomic 132
Electronegativity: 1.63 (Pauling); 1.45 (Allred); 3.6 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 3.30 (Slater); 4.98 (Clementi); 6.65 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 11
Issotope mass range: 44 -> 55
Crystal structure, (cell dimentions / pm), space group bcc
X-ray diffraction: mass absorption coefficients: CuKα 233 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKα 27.5 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: -0.0382 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 5.08 sa / barns


Biological data

Biological role: Essential to some species including humans; it also acts to stimulate metalbolism.
Toxic intake: toxicity varies
Lethal intake: LD50 (V2O5, oral, rat) = 10 mg kg-1
Hazards: Vanadium and its compunds irritate the eyes and lungs; the fumes of volatile compounds are highly toxic. Some vanadium compounds have experimental mutagenic effects.
Level in humans  
Blood: <0.0002 mg dm-3
Bone: 0.0035 p.p.m.
Liver: 0.006 p.p.m.
Muscle: 0.02 p.p.m.
Daily dietary intake: 0.04 mg
Total mass of element in average [70 kg] person: 0.11 mg


Geological data

MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Carnotite K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O 4.95 n.a. mon., dull/earthy/pearly yellow
Descloizite PbZn(VO4)(OH) 6.2 3 - 3.5 orth., greasy brown/red
Patrónite VS4 2.81 2 mon., grey-black
Vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl 6.86 2.7 - 3 hex., sub-res./sub-adam. orange red


Chief ore: descloizite, patronite, vanadite, carnotite.
World production: 7000 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: not mined as such, but generally obtained as a by-product of other ores and from Venezuelan oils.
Reserves: n.a.
Specimen: available as foil, granules, powder, rod or turnings. CARE !


Sun: 1.05 x 104 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: 160 p.p.m.
Residence time:  
Classification: recycled
Oxidation state: V

Übersicht der Elemente mit Zugang zu unserem Shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

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