Titanium (Ti)

We are a leading manufacturer and supplier of research materials

Titanium 22Ti47.90

Titanium was discovered in 1791 by Rev. W. Gregor at Creed, Cornwall, England, and independently in 1795 by M.H. Klaproth at Berlin, Germany.

[Names after the Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology]

French: titane
German: titan
Italian: titanio
Spanish: titanio

Description: Titanium is a hard, lustrous, silvery metal which resists corrosion due to an oxide layer on its surface. However, the powdered metal will burn if ignited. Titanium is unaffected by many acids (exept HF, H3PO4 an concentrated H2SO4), and alkalis. White titanium dioxide is used in paints because of its covering power. The metal itself is used in chemical plants, lightweight alloys, hip replacement joints, etc.



Titanium single crystal properties

State: single crystal grains with ~mm size
Crystal structure: hexagonal
Production method: Floating zone
Standard size: diameter 8-10mm
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (10-10), (1-100) and (11-20)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03µm
Purity: 99.97%
Typical analysis (ppm): C 3
H < 1
O 9
N < 5
Cu 1.60
Fe 1.80
Ni < 1
Pb 0.30
Si 0.30

Ga, Hf and Ta are below the detection limit

Materials properties

Density: 4.51 g/cm3
Melting point: 1659.85 °C / 1933 °K
Boiling point: 3286.85 °C / 3560 °K
Molar volume: 10.55 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 21.9 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 8.35 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 42.0x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: +4.01 x 10-8(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 120.2 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 45.6 GPa
Bulk modulus: 108.4 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.361
Radii: Ti4+ 69; Ti2+ 80; atomic 145; covalent 132
Electronegativity: 1.54 (Pauling); 1.32 (Allred); 3.45 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 3.15 (Slater); 4.82 (Clementi); 6.37 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 13
Issotope mass range: 41 -> 53
Crystal structure, (cell dimentions / pm), space group hexagonal
X-ray diffraction: mass absorption coefficients: CuKα 208 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKα 24.2 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: -0.3438 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 6.09 sa / barns


Biological data

Biological role: none
Toxic intake: Low toxicity as metal, oxide (TiO2) and inorganic titanium (IV) salts.
Lethal intake: non-lethal
Hazards: Some titanium compunds are dangerous to handle, such as TiCl3, which is corrosive. Titanium has a stimulatory effect and is a suspected carcinogen.
Level in humans  
Blood: 0.054 mg dm-3
Bone: n.a.
Liver: 1.2 - 4.7 p.p.m.
Muscle: 0.9 - 2.2 p.p.m.
Daily dietary intake: 0.8 mg
Total mass of element in average [70 kg] person: 20 mg


Geological data

MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Anatase b-TiO2 3.90 5.5 - 6 tet., adam./brown, green, etc.
Brookite g-TiO2 4.14 5.5 - 6 orth., met. adam./brown, black
Ilmenite FeTiO3 4.72 5 - 6 rhom., met. black
Perovskite CaTiO2 4.01 5.5 orth., adam./met. black
Rutile a-TiO2 4.23 6 - 6.5 tet., met. lustre brown/yellowish
Titanite CaTiSiO5 3.50 5 - 5.5 mon., adam./res. yellow/brown


Chief ore: ilemnite; sometimes anatase is mined
World production: 99 000 (titanium metal); 3 x 106 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: Norway, India, Brazil, Canada, USA, Russia
Reserves: 440 x 106 tonnes
Specimen: available as crystals, foil, granules, powder, rod or wire. Safe.


Sun: 1.12 x 105 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: 5600 p.p.m.
Residence time:  
Classification: n.a.
Oxidation state: IV

Source: Emsley, J. (1998) The Elements (3rd Edition)

Overview of elements with access to our shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Get our latest news and special sales
You may unsubscribe at any moment. For that purpose, please find our contact info in the legal notice.
Tel.: +49 (0) 2461 - 9352 - 0
Fax: +49 (0) 2461 - 9352 - 11