Ruthenium single crystal 44Ru101.07

We are a leading manufacturer and supplier of research materials

Ruthenium single crystal 44Ru101.07

Ruthenium was discovered in 1808 by J.A. Sniadecki at the University of Vilno, Poland. Rediscovered in 1828 by G.W. Osann at the University of Tartu, Russia.

[Latin, Ruthenia = Russia]

French: ruthénium
German: Ruthenium
Italian: rutenio
Spanish: rutenio

Description: Ruthenium is a lustrous, silvery metal of the so-called platinum group. It is unaffected by air, water and acids, but dissolves in molten alkalis. Ruthenium is used to harden platinum an palladium metals, and as a catalyst.



Ruthenium single crystal properties

State: single crystal
Crystal structure: hexagonal
Production method: Floating zone
Standard size: diameter 6-8mm
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (0001), (+1-100) and (11-20)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03µm
Purity: 99.99%
Typical analysis (ppm): C 3
H < 1
O 9
N < 5
Cu 1.60
Fe 1.80
Ni < 1
Pb 0.30
Si 0.30

Ga, Hf and Ta are below the detection limit

Materials properties

Density: 12.2 g/cm3
Melting point: 2309.85 °C / 2583 °K
Boiling point: 3899.85 °C / 4173 °K
Molar volume: 8.14 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 117 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 9.1 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 7.6x 10-8 [273 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: +5.37 x 10-9(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 432 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 173 GPa
Bulk modulus: 286 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.25
Radii: Ru5+ 54; Ru4+ 65; Ru3+ 77; atomic 134; covalent 12
Electronegativity: 2.2 (Pauling); 1.42 (Allred); 4.5 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 3.75 (Slater); 7.45 (Clementi); 10.57 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 20
Issotope mass range: 92 -> 110
Crystal structure, (cell dimentions / pm), space group hexagonal
X-ray diffraction: mass absorption coefficients: CuKα 183 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKα 21.1 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.721 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 2.56 sa / barns


Biological data

Biological role: none
Toxic intake: most ruthenium compunds are poisonous
Lethal intake: LD50 (RuO2, oral, rat)= 4580 mg kg-1
Hazards: Ingested ruthenium is retained in the bones for a long time. The volatile oxide, RuO4 is highly toxic by inhalation.
Level in humans  
Daily dietary intake: n.a
Total mass of element in average [70 kg] person: n.a.


Geological data

MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Ruthenarsenite (Ru, Ni) As 10 6 orth., met. orange-brown
Ruthenium Ru 12.2 6.5 hex., met. white


Chief ore: from the wastes of nickel refining.
World production: 0.12 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: South Africa, Russia, Canada, USA and Zimbabwe
Reserves: n.a.
Specimen: available as powder or sponge. WARNING !


Sun: 67.6 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: c. 0.001 p.p.m.
Residence time:  
Oxidation state:  

Source: Emsley, J. (1998) The Elements (3rd Edition)

Overview of elements with access to our shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Get our latest news and special sales
You may unsubscribe at any moment. For that purpose, please find our contact info in the legal notice.
Tel.: +49 (0) 2461 - 9352 - 0
Fax: +49 (0) 2461 - 9352 - 11