Palladium (Pd)

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Palladium 46Pd106.4

Discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston at London, England.

[Named after the asteroid Pallas]

French: palladium
German: Palladium
Italian: palladio
Spanish: palladio

Description: Palladium is a lustrous, silvery-white, malleable and ductile metal of the so-called platinum group. It resists corrosion, but dissolves in oxidising acids and in molten alkalis. Palladium metal has the unusual ability of allowing hydrogen gas to filter through it. It is mailny used as a catalyst.



Palladium single crystal properties

State: single crystal
Crystal structure: fcc
Production method: Czochralski
Standard size: diameter 6-12mm
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (100), (110) and (111)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03µm
Purity: 99.999%
Typical analysis (ppm): C 3
H < 1
O 9
N < 5
Cu 1.60
Fe 1.80
Ni < 1
Pb 0.30
Si 0.30

Ga, Hf and Ta are below the detection limit

Materials properties

Density: 12.0 g/cm3
Melting point: 1551.85 °C / 1825 °K
Boiling point: 3139.85 °C / 3413 °K
Molar volume: 8.85 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 71.8 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 11.2 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 10.8x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: +6.702 x 10-8(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 121 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 43.6 GPa
Bulk modulus: 187 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.39
Radii: Pd4+ 64; Pd2+ 86; atomic 138; covalent 128
Electronegativity: 2.20 (Pauling); 1.35 (Allred); 4.45 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 4.05 (Slater); 7.84 (Clementi); 11.11 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 25
Issotope mass range: 96 -> 116
Crystal structure, (cell dimentions / pm), space group fcc
X-ray diffraction: mass absorption coefficients: CuKα 206 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKα 24.1 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.591 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 6.9 sa / barns


Biological data

Biological role: none
Toxic intake: n.a.
Lethal intake: LD50 (chloride, oral, rat)25 = mg kg-1
Hazards: Palladium is poorly absorbed by the body when ingested and PdCl2 was formerly presribed as a treatment for tuberculosis at the rate of 65 mg per day (approximately 1 mg kg-1 without apparent ill effec
Level in humans  
Daily dietary intake: n.a.
Total mass of element in average [70 kg] person: n.a.


Geological data

MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Palladium Pd 11.9 4.5 - 5 cub. met. white/grey


Chief ore: speciments of the native metal are found in Brazil. Most is extracted as a by-product from copper an
World production: 24 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: see copper and zinc
Reserves: 24 000 tonnes
Specimen: available as foil, granules, powder, rod, shot sponge or wire. Safe.


Sun: 32 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: c. 6 x 10-4 p.p.m.
Residence time:  
Classification: recycled
Oxidation state: II

Source: Emsley, J. (1998) The Elements (3rd Edition)

Overview of elements with access to our shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

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