Palladium (Pd)

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Palladium 46Pd106.4

1803 von W.H. Wollaston in London, UK, entdeckt.

[Nach dem Asteroiden Pallas benannt]

French: palladium
English: palladium
Italian: palladio
Spanish: palladio

Beschreibung: Silberweißes Metall, glänzend, verformbar, duktil. Korrodiert nicht, löst sich in oxidierenden Säuren und geschmolzenen Alkalien. Absorbiert leicht Wasserstoffgas. Hauptsächlich als Katalysator verwendet.



Palladium single crystal properties

State: single crystal
Crystal structure: fcc
Production method: Czochralski
Standard size: diameter 6-12mm
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (100), (110) and (111)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03µm
Purity: 99.999%
Typical analysis (ppm): C 3
H < 1
O 9
N < 5
Cu 1.60
Fe 1.80
Ni < 1
Pb 0.30
Si 0.30

Ga, Hf and Ta are below the detection limit

Materials properties

Density: 12.0 g/cm3
Melting point: 1551.85 °C / 1825 °K
Boiling point: 3139.85 °C / 3413 °K
Molar volume: 8.85 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 71.8 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 11.2 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 10.8x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: +6.702 x 10-8(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 121 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 43.6 GPa
Bulk modulus: 187 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.39 GPa
Radii: Pd4+ 64; Pd2+ 86; atomic 138; covalent 128
Electronegativity: 2.20 (Pauling); 1.35 (Allred); 4.45 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 4.05 (Slater); 7.84 (Clementi); 11.11 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 25
Issotope mass range: 96 -> 116
Crystal structure, (cell dimentions / pm), space group fcc
X-ray diffraction: mass absorption coefficients: CuKα 206 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKα 24.1 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.591 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 6.9 sa / barns


Biological data

Biological role: none
Toxic intake: n.a.
Lethal intake: LD50 (chloride, oral, rat)25 = mg kg-1
Hazards: Palladium is poorly absorbed by the body when ingested and PdCl2 was formerly presribed as a treatment for tuberculosis at the rate of 65 mg per day (approximately 1 mg kg-1 without apparent ill effec
Level in humans  
Daily dietary intake: n.a.
Total mass of element in average [70 kg] person: n.a.


Geological data

MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Palladium Pd 11.9 4.5 - 5 cub. met. white/grey


Chief ore: speciments of the native metal are found in Brazil. Most is extracted as a by-product from copper an
World production: 24 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: see copper and zinc
Reserves: 24 000 tonnes
Specimen: available as foil, granules, powder, rod, shot sponge or wire. Safe.


Sun: 32 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: c. 6 x 10-4 p.p.m.
Residence time:  
Classification: recycled
Oxidation state: II

Übersicht der Elemente mit Zugang zu unserem Shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

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