Cadmium (Cd)

We are a leading manufacturer and supplier of research materials

Cadmium single crystal 48Cd112.40

Discovered in 1817 by F. Stromeyer at Göttingen, Germany.

[Latin: cadmia = calamine]
  French: cadmium
  German: Cadmium
  Italian: cadmio
  Spanish: cadmio

Description: Cadmium is a silvery metal that tarnishes in air, and is soluble in acids but not alkalis. It is used in rechargeable batteries, alloys and pigments, but because of its toxicity these uses are being phased out wherever possible.

Cadmium single crystal properties


State: Single crystal
Crystal structure: rhombohedral
Production method: Bridgman
Standard size: diameter 12
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (0001)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03 µm
Purity: 99.999%


Further Materials properties


Crystal structure: (cell dimensions/pm), space group, h.c.p. (a=297.94, c=561.86), P63/mmc
X-ray diffractions mass absorption coefficients: CuKa 231 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKa 27.5 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.51 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 2450 sa / barns
Density: 8.65 kg/m-3
Melting point: 320.95 °C / 594.1 °K
Boiling point: 764.85 °C / 1038 °K
Molar volume: 13.00 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 96.8 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 29.8 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 6.83x10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: -2.21 x 10-9(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 62.6 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 24.0 GPa
Bulk modulus: 51.0 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.30
Radi: Cd2+ 103; Cd+ 114; atomic 149; covalent 141
Electronegativity: 1.69 (Pauling); 1.46 (Allred); 4.33 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 4.35 (Slater); 8.19 (Clementi); 11.58 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 31
Isotope mass range: 99 -> 124



Biological data


Biological role: None has been proved, although suspected. It is stimulatory
Toxic intake: 17 mg kg-1 (chloride, oral, rat)
Lethal intake: LD50 (chloride, oral, guinea pig) = 63 mg kg-1
Hazards: Cadmium is toxic but its emetic action means that little is absorbed, so fatal poisoning rarely occurs. Cadmium is carcinogenic and teratogenic.
Level in humans  
Blood: 0.0052 mg dm-3
Bone: <1.8 ppm
Liver: 2 - 22 ppm
Muscle: 0.14 - 3.2 ppm
Daily dietary intake: 0.007 - 3 mg
Total mass of element in average
[70 kg] person:
50 mg


Geological data


Minerals:Many minerals are known, and aluminium is present in many other minerals
MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Cadmoselite  a-CdSe  5.6  n.a.  hex., res./adam. black
Greenockite  CdS  4.9  3 - 3.5  hex., yellow, tiny prisms
Otavite  CdCO3  5.03  n.a.  rhom., adam. white/brown


Chief ore: none as such, most cadmium is produced as a by-product of the smelting of zinc from its ore ZnS, in which CdS is a significant impurity.
World production: 13900 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: see zinc
Reserves: see zinc
Specimen: available as foil, granules, powder, rod, shot, stick ore wire. CARE !


Sun: 71 (relative to H = 1 x 1023)
Earth's crust: 0.11 ppm
Atlantic surface: 1.1 x 10-6 ppm
Atlantic deep: 38 x 10-6 ppm
Pacific surface: 1.1 x 10-6 ppm
Pacific deep: 100 x 10-6 ppm
Residence time: 30 years
Classification: recycled
Oxidation state: II

  Source: Emsley, J. (1998) The Elements (3rd Edition)

Other sizes and specifications on request

Overview of elements with access to our shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Get our latest news and special sales
You may unsubscribe at any moment. For that purpose, please find our contact info in the legal notice.
Tel.: +49 (0) 2461 - 9352 - 0
Fax: +49 (0) 2461 - 9352 - 11