Cadmium (Cd)

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Cadmium 48Cd112.40

1817 von F. Stromeyer in Göttingen, Deutschland, entdeckt.

[Latin: cadmia = Kalamin]
  French: cadmium
   English: Cadmium
  Italian: cadmio
  Spanish: cadmio

Beschreibung: Silberweißes Metall. Läuft in Luft an, ist in Säuren, aber nicht in Laugen löslich. Wird für Akkumulatoren, Legierungen und Pigmente verwendet.

Cadmium single crystal properties


State: Single crystal
Crystal structure: rhombohedral
Production method: Bridgman
Standard size: diameter 12
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (0001)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03 µm
Purity: 99.999%


Further Materials properties


Crystal structure: (cell dimensions/pm), space group, h.c.p. (a=297.94, c=561.86), P63/mmc
X-ray diffractions mass absorption coefficients: CuKa 231 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKa 27.5 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.51 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 2450 sa / barns
Density: 8.65 kg/m-3
Melting point: 320.95 °C / 594.1 °K
Boiling point: 764.85 °C / 1038 °K
Molar volume: 13.00 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 96.8 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 29.8 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 6.83x10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: -2.21 x 10-9(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 62.6 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 24.0 GPa
Bulk modulus: 51.0 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.30 GPa
Radi: Cd2+ 103; Cd+ 114; atomic 149; covalent 141
Electronegativity: 1.69 (Pauling); 1.46 (Allred); 4.33 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 4.35 (Slater); 8.19 (Clementi); 11.58 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 31
Isotope mass range: 99 -> 124



Biological data


Biological role: None has been proved, although suspected. It is stimulatory
Toxic intake: 17 mg kg-1 (chloride, oral, rat)
Lethal intake: LD50 (chloride, oral, guinea pig) = 63 mg kg-1
Hazards: Cadmium is toxic but its emetic action means that little is absorbed, so fatal poisoning rarely occurs. Cadmium is carcinogenic and teratogenic.
Level in humans  
Blood: 0.0052 mg dm-3
Bone: <1.8 ppm
Liver: 2 - 22 ppm
Muscle: 0.14 - 3.2 ppm
Daily dietary intake: 0.007 - 3 mg
Total mass of element in average
[70 kg] person:
50 mg


Geological data


Minerals:Many minerals are known, and aluminium is present in many other minerals
MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Cadmoselite  a-CdSe  5.6  n.a.  hex., res./adam. black
Greenockite  CdS  4.9  3 - 3.5  hex., yellow, tiny prisms
Otavite  CdCO3  5.03  n.a.  rhom., adam. white/brown


Chief ore: none as such, most cadmium is produced as a by-product of the smelting of zinc from its ore ZnS, in which CdS is a significant impurity.
World production: 13900 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: see zinc
Reserves: see zinc
Specimen: available as foil, granules, powder, rod, shot, stick ore wire. CARE !


Sun: 71 (relative to H = 1 x 1023)
Earth's crust: 0.11 ppm
Atlantic surface: 1.1 x 10-6 ppm
Atlantic deep: 38 x 10-6 ppm
Pacific surface: 1.1 x 10-6 ppm
Pacific deep: 100 x 10-6 ppm
Residence time: 30 years
Classification: recycled
Oxidation state: II


Other sizes and specifications on request

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