Antimony (Sb)

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Antimony single crystal 51Sb121.75

Probably known to the ancients and certainly to the alchemists.

  [Greek: anti + monos = not alone; Latin: stibium]
  French: antimoine
  German: Antimon
  Italian: antimonio
  Spanish: antimonio

Description: Antimony is a metalloid element with three forms. The metallic form is the more stable and is bright, silvery, hard and brittle. It is stable in dry air, and is not attacked by dilute acids or alkalis. The addition of altimony will harden other metals, and is used in storage batteries, bearings, etc.

Antimony single crystal properties


State: Single crystal
Crystal structure: rhombohedral
Production method: Bridgman
Standard size: diameter 12
thickness 1
Orientation: (100), (110) and (111)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03 µm
Purity: 99.999%



Further Materials properties


Crystal structure: (cell dimensions/pm), space group, grey rhombohedral (a=430.84, c=1124.79), R3m (grey) cubic (a=298.6), Pm3m metal h.c.p. (a=336.9, c=533), P63/mmc
X-ray diffractions mass absorption coefficients: CuKa 270 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKa 33.1 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.557 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 4.91 sa / barns
Density: 6.62 kg/m-3 [293 K]; 2390 [liquid at m.p.]
Melting point: 630.74 °C / 903.89 °K
Boiling point: 1634.85 °C / 1908 °K
Molar volume: 18.20 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 24.3 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 8.5 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 39.0 x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: -1.0 x 10-9(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 54.7 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 20.7 GPa
Bulk modulus: n.a.
Poisson's ratio: 0.25 - 0.33
Radi: Sb5+ 62; Sb3+ 89; Sb2- 245; atomic 182; covalent 141; van der Waals 220
Electronegativity: 2.05 (Pauling); 1.82 (Allred); 4.85 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 6.30 (Slater); 9.99 (Clementi); 12.37(Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 40
Isotope mass range: 108 -> 136



Biological data


Biological role: Anthimony has no known biological role
Toxic intake: 100 g
Lethal intake: Antimony provokes vomiting, and was once prescribed for this purpose, but medical does is near to toxic dose and antimony can kill. LD50 (oral) for antimony potassium tartrate is c. 140 mg.
Hazards: Small does of antimony stimulate metabolism, large does cause liver damage.
Level in humans  
Blood: 0.0033 mg dm-3
Bone: 0.01 - 0.6 ppm
Liver: 0.011 - 0.42 ppm
Muscle: 0.042 - 0.191 ppm
Daily dietary intake: 0.002 - 1.3 mg
Total mass of element in average
[70 kg] person:
2 mg


Geological data


Minerals:A little native antimony occurs naturally as granular masses or nodules, Generally in silver-bearing lodes and has been found in Sweden, Germany, Italy and the USA
MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Sibiconite  Sb3O6(OH)  5.58  4 - 5.5  hex., res./adam. black
Stibnite  Sb2S3  4.63  2  hex., yellow, tiny prisms
Tetrahedrite  (Cu,Fe)12Sb4S13  4.97  3 - 4.5  rhom., adam. white/brown
Ullmannite  NiSbS  6.65  5 - 5.5  cub., metallic grey


Chief ore: Stibnite. Tetrahedrite, although mainly a copper ore, yields antimony as a by-product.
World production: 53000 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: China, Italy, Peru, Mexico, Bolivias, France
Reserves: 2.5 x 106 tonnes
Specimen: available as pieces, powder or shot. CARE !


Sun: 10 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: 0.2 ppm
Seawater: c. 3 x 10-4 ppm
Residence time: 3.5 x 105 years
Classification: accumulating
Oxidation state: III

  Source: Emsley, J. (1998) The Elements (3rd Edition)

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Overview of elements with access to our shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

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