Indium (In)

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Indium single crystal 49In114.82

1863 von Ferdinand Reich und Hieronymous Richter in Freiberg, Deutschland, entdeckt.

[nach der indigoblauen Linie des Spectrums benannt]

French: indium
English: indium
Italian: indio
Spanish: indio

Beschreibung: Weiches, silberweißes Metall. Beständig in Luft und Wasser, löst sich in Säuren. Verwendet in niedrig schmelzenden Legierungen für Sicherheitsvorrichtungen. InAs und InSb werden als Halbleiter in Transistoren, Thermistoren u.s.w. verwendet.



Indium single crystal properties

State: single crystal
Crystal structure: tetragonal
Production method: Bridgeman
Standard size: diameter 7mm
thickness 3mm
Orientation: (001)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, <0.1µm
Roughness of surface:  
Purity: 99.9999%
Typical analysis (ppm): C 3
H < 1
O 9
N < 5
Cu 1.60
Fe 1.80
Ni < 1
Pb 0.30
Si 0.30

Ga, Hf and Ta are below the detection limit

Materials properties

Density: 7.31 g/cm3
Melting point: 156.17 °C / 429.32 °K
Boiling point: 2079.85 °C / 2353 °K
Molar volume: 15.71 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 81.6 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 33 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 8.37x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: -7.0 x 10-9(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 10.6 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 3.68 GPa
Bulk modulus: n.a. GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.45 GPa
Radii: In3+ 92; atomic 163; covalent 150
Electronegativity: 1.78 (Pauling); 1.49 (Allred); 3.1 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 5.00 (Slater); 8.47 (Clementi); 9.66 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 59
Issotope mass range: 102 -> 132
Crystal structure, (cell dimentions / pm), space group tetragonal
X-ray diffraction: mass absorption coefficients: CuKα 243 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKα 29.3 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.4065 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 194 sa / barns


Biological data

Biological role: none, but acts to stimulate metabolism
Toxic intake: 30 mg
Lethal intake: LD50 (sulfate, oral, rat)= c. 1200 mg kg-1
Hazards: Indium is moderately toxic b yingestion and affects the liver, heart and kidneys. It may have teratogentic effects
Level in humans  
Blood: n.a., but low
Bone: n.a.
Liver: n.a.
Muscle: c. 0.015 p.p.m.
Daily dietary intake: n.a. but low
Total mass of element in average [70 kg] person: c. 0.4 mg


Geological data

MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Indite FeIn2S4 4.67 4.5 cub., met. white


Chief ore: It is obtained as a by-product of zinc and lead smelting.
World production: 75 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: see zinc and lead
Reserves: >1500 tonnes
Specimen: available as foil, granules, pieces, powder, rod, shot or wire. CARE !


Sun: 44.7 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: 0.049 p.p.m.
Residence time:  
Classification: n.a.
Oxidation state: III

Übersicht der Elemente mit Zugang zu unserem Shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

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