Gadolinium (Gd)

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Gadolinium 64Gd157.25

1880 von J.C. Galissard de Marignac in Genf, Schweiz, entdeckt. 1886 von P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudren in Paris, Frankreich, rein dargestellt.

[Nach J. Gadolin, einem finnischen Chemiker, benannt]

  French: gadolinium
  English: gadolinium
  Italian: gadolinio
  Spanish: gadolinio

Beschreibung: Silberweißes Lanthanoidmetall. Reagiert langsam mit Sauerstoff und Wasser, löst sich in Säuren. Verwendet für Magnete, feuerfeste Steine, in der Elektronik, Neutronenradiographie und Magnetooptik.

Gadolinium single crystal properties


State: Single crystal
Crystal structure: Hexagonal
Production method: Czochralski
Standard size: diameter 6-10mm
thickness 1-2mm
Orientation: (0001)
Orientation accuracy: <2°, <1°, <0.4° or <0.1°
Polishing: as cut, one or two sides polished
Roughness of surface: <0.03 µm
Purity: 99.99%



Further Materials properties


Crystal structure: (cell dimensions/pm), space group,
a-Gd h.c.p. (a=363.60, c=578.26), P63/mmc
b-Gd b.c.c. (a=405), Im3m
T(a->b)=1535 K
High pressure form: (a=361, c=2603), R3m
X-ray diffractions mass absorption coefficients: CuKa 439 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
MoKa 64.4 (µ/r) / cm2g-1
Neutron scattering length: 0.65 b/10-12 cm
Thermal neutron capture cross-section: 49000 sa / barns
Density: 7.89 kg/m-3 [293 K]; 2390 [liquid at m.p.]
Melting point: 1312.85 °C / 1586 °K
Boiling point: 3265.85 °C / 3539 °K
Molar volume: 10.00 cm3
Thermal conductivity: 10.6 [300 K] Wm-1K-1
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: 8.6 x 10-6 K-1
Electrical resistivity: 134.0 x 10-8 [293 K] Wm
Mass magnetic susceptibility: +6.030 x 10-5(s) kg-1m3
Young's modulus: 54.8 GPa
Rigidity modulus: 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus: 37.9 GPa
Poisson's ratio: 0.259 GPa
Radi: Gd3+ 97; atomic 180; covalent 161
Electronegativity: 1.20 (Pauling); 1.11 (Allred); £3.3 eV (absolute)
Effective nuclear charge: 2.85 (Slater); 8.22 (Clementi); 11.28 (Froese-Fischer)
Number of Isotopes (incl. nuclear isomers): 23
Isotope mass range: 143 -> 163



Biological data


Biological role: none, but acts to stimulate metabolism
Toxic intake: n.a.
Lethal intake: LD50 (chloride, oral, mouse)=>2000 mg kg-1
Hazards: Gadolinium is mildly toxic by ingestion, but is a skin and eye irritant and a suspected tumorigen.
Level in humans  
Blood: 0.39 mg dm-3
Organs: n.a., but very low
Daily dietary intake: n.a.
Total mass of element in average
[70 kg] person:
n.a., but very low


Geological data


Minerals:Many minerals are known, and aluminium is present in many other minerals
MineralFormulaDensityHardnessCrystal apperance
Bastnäsite  (Ce, La etc.) Co3F  4.9  4 - 4.5  hex., vit./greasy yellow
Monazite  (Ce, La, Nd, Th etc.) PO4  5.20  5 - 5.5  mon., waxy/vit., yellow-brown


Chief ore: monazite, bastnäsite
World production: 400 tonnes/year
Main mining areas: USA, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, China
Reserves: c. 2 x 106 tonnes
Specimen: available as chips, foil or ingots. Safe.


Sun: 13.2 x 106 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)
Earth's crust: 7.7 ppm
Atlantic surface: 5.2 x 10-7 ppm
Atlantic deep: 9.3 x 10-7 ppm
Pacific surface: 6.0 x 10-7 ppm
Pacific deep: 15 x 10-7 ppm
Residence time: 300 years
Classification: recycled
Oxidation state: III


Other sizes and specifications on request

Übersicht der Elemente mit Zugang zu unserem Shop

1 18
2 13 14 15 16 17
Li Be B C
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo
Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
Ce Pr Nd
Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

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